Buprenorphine is an opioid pain reliever that is semi-synthetic in nature. Substancej is a derivative of thebaine – an alkaloid related to narcotic analgesics. Its chemical structure is close to morphine, among the pain relieving opiates, the agent is one of the most effective. Pharmacy preparations with this active substance are called Anfin, Bupremen, Norfin, Buprenal, Buprenex, Buprex, Lepetan, Torgesik, Sangesik, Temgezik, Unifin.
Outwardly, it is a powder of white crystals that are difficult to dissolve in water, but in ethyl alcohol the substance is soluble to a non-residual state. The commercial name in English is Buprenorphine.
Chemical formula of buprenorphine
The drug is produced in ampoules and tablet form. The composition of one injection dose is 0.3 mg of buprenorphine hydrochloride. Sublingual tablets contain 2 or 4 mg of buprenorphine hydrochloride plus additional ingredients – corn starch, aspartame, citric acid and some other ingredients. Buprenorphine is designated by the chemical formula C29H42CINO4.
Addiction to the drug occurs after therapeutic treatment or when it is deliberately misused. The narcotic effect is expressed in obtaining pleasure. At the same time, the nervous system is not inhibited, as is the case with the use of morphine or heroin. The drug has a stimulating effect on the central nervous system. When abused, a person develops aggression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances.
The history of the appearance of the substance
Buprenorphine began to be used as a powerful pain reliever more than thirty years ago. Clinical use is typical for the most severe pain syndromes in oncology and surgical interventions. The duration of action of the drug is long, but the interval between the introduction and the onset of the effect is significant, which reduces its positive characteristics.
Since 1996, Buprenorphine has been used as a substitute for drugs in the treatment of opiate dependence. It is safer than methadone, therefore it is used in narcology in many countries. The drug eases the state of health of drug addicts during withdrawal, but has a drawback – addiction develops to it, if you use it crushed with water intravenously or inhale the resulting powder.
Buprenorphine is a powerful analgesic drug used to relieve acute pain and relieve pain in cancer patients and patients undergoing surgery. In addition, it is used to treat opioid addiction. The use of Buprenorphine in medicine has its own characteristics, the violation of which can lead to undesirable consequences.
The medicine is prescribed for treatment in a hospital or at home under the supervision of a doctor.
It is used sublingually with the obligatory retention of the tablet in the mouth until it is completely dissolved.
Taking the drug with withdrawal symptoms is carried out according to the scheme – at the onset of withdrawal, 6 hours after the injection of the opioid drug.
The algorithm for taking the drug in the treatment of drug addiction provides an initial dose of 4 to 8 mg with a gradual transition to a dosage of 2 to 4 mg. The interval between doses is no more than 8 hours. The highest therapeutic dose is 32 mg per day. The duration of the course is at the discretion of the doctor. The drug is included in list II of narcotic substances, in the Russian Federation, control over its implementation is established.
Signs of use
With the abuse of drugs based on buprenorphine, a person gets pleasure, the high occurs due to the effect of the substance on the opiate receptors of the brain. Buprenorphine has the ability to knock out other drugs from receptors and occupy their niche. Therefore, it often happens that while recovering from an addiction, the addict replaces one addiction with another.
Signs of the drug use of buprenorphine are a whole list of pathological abnormalities in the state and behavior of a person:
unconscious speech, stretching of words and phrases;
the desire for solitude and the desire to be in silence;
insensitivity to pain;
lowering blood pressure and impaired respiratory function;
blanching of the skin.
The visual sign is the presence of injection marks. The accuracy of determining the presence of a drug in the body is associated with the study of urine analysis, according to the listed symptoms, it is impossible to tell which drug the resident took, since the signs of taking all opiates are similar.
Effect on the body
Buprenorphine lasts up to 8 hours on the body. The euphoria from it is less severe than from other opioids, but the analgesic effect is more effective. When administered intravenously, the effect begins after 15 minutes. 0.3 mg of buprenorphine is equal in strength to 10 mg of morphine, that is, it is 30 times stronger as an analgesic.
Side effects are:
depression of respiratory function;
increased or decreased heart rate;
hypotension, dizziness, nausea;
violation of the logic of thinking, hallucinations;
dry mouth, increased reaction to cold;
constriction of the pupils.
If the drug is combined with alcohol and other analgesics or sedatives, this leads to central nervous system depression.
Development of addiction
Due to the low toxicity of the substance, dependence develops only with prolonged use. Withdrawal symptoms with withdrawal occurs after a few months of taking. It is expressed in irritability, bad mood and well-being, alternating chills and fever, muscle twitching, abdominal pain, nausea with vomiting, and chronic constipation.
Unpleasant phenomena are treated with therapeutic methods with the use of analgesics of a different series. During treatment, symptoms are eliminated and pathological processes in the digestive tract, the respiratory system, and the central nervous system are removed.
Fatal consequences of use
With the abuse of Buprenorphine, negative changes in physical and mental condition are observed:
sleepiness and apnea
respiratory spasm and acidosis;
pathology of cardiac activity;
In severe cases, a coma ensues, which can lead to death.
Help with buprenorphine overdose
If drug poisoning is diagnosed, then its intake is immediately stopped, ventilation of the lungs is provided and blood circulation is restored. A blood test is done, pH, gas composition and electrolytes are determined, electrolyte disturbances are eliminated and acidosis is corrected. The stomach is cleansed by washing or taking activated carbon.